Four types of Skin Aging.
1. Intrinsic, also Chronological aging is a slow process with clinical features such as smooth, pale, dry and less elastic skin having fine wrinkles that are not apparent until old age
2. Extrinsic aging is usually attributed to photoaging and smoking. Lifestyle or behavioral aging includes diet, alcohol and drugs.
3. Hormonal aging involves dysfunction or aging of hormonal systems.
4. Catabolic aging is related to chronic diseases.
All type aging contribute to epidermal and dermal atrophy, a reduced number of fibroblasts, less collagen and more matrix metalloproteinases, increased skin fragility and reduced nutrient transfer between the dermal and epidermal layers. Also, photoaged epidermis shows atrophy and abnormal keratinocyte maturation, loss of elastic fiber integrity. These changes lead to reduced skin elasticity and manifest as wrinkles. The skin is a hormone-dependent organ, and the decline of hormonal secretions during menopause accelerates skin aging. Catabolic aging compromises older skin further through the impact of a specific chronic disease, such as diabetes, hypothyroidism, cancer or infection.
As skin aging is a combination of the different types of aging that differs between individuals; the best approach entails the use of multifunctional active ingredients that address more than one type.